Role of TGFƒÀ in regulation of the tumor microenvironment and drug delivery (Review)

TGF-beta (Transforming growth factor beta / TGF-ƒÀ) is a type of cytokine, synthesized in a wide variety of tissues that controls proliferation, cellular differentiation, angiogenesis and inflammation. Dysregulation of its pathway contributes to a broad variety of pathologies, including cancer. TGF-ƒÀ is an important regulatory tumor suppressor factor in epithelial cells, where it early inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. Many studies have identified the overexpression of TGF-ƒÀ 1 in various types of human cancer, which correlates with tumor progression, metastasis, angiogenesis and poor prognostic outcome.

Thalidomide may exert its effects on the regulation of MMP-13 and TIMP-1 via inhibition of the TGF-ƒÀ1 signaling pathway, which enhances the degradation of extracellular matrix and accelerates the regression of hepatic cirrhosis in rats.